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Editorial Board

  • Bulent Acma, Anadolu University, Turkey
  • Amer A. Taqa, University of Mosul, Iraq
  • Peter Yang, Case Western Reserve University, USA
  • Agnieszka Malinowska, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
    Editorial Board

 Repa Proceeding Series

Open Access  |  Peer-reviewed, Fast Publication

Assistant Editor: Ms. Michell Ann. 
Editorial Board: Link

ISSN 2435-7308
DOI Index 10.37357/1068/rps

The Research and Education Promotion Association – Repa Proceeding Series (RPS) is a peer-reviewed semi-annual publication that emanates recent researches based on an exhaustive topic of the day “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”. This conference establishes interdisciplinary coverage of sustainability and argues its pillars (environmental, technical and technological, social, institutional, and economic disciplines) for long-run sustainability. Repa Proceeding Series emerges transboundary researches, experiences, case studies, and lessons learned to cover conceptual and empirical research contributions within a broad range of topics. In a big image, this conference offers viable options for societies transition in the 21st century for (1) a well-being life to eradicate poverty, (2) mitigate climate change, (3) promote lifelong learning opportunities, (4) empower sociality, (5) deploy affordable energy, (6) sustain economic growth, (7) offer innovation, (8) reduce inequality, (9) ensure global sustainability and many more. Submission to this publication is available direct or through the intended conferences that cover these main themes:

–  Agriculture
–  Plant Sciences
–  Business and Trade
–  Management and Leadership
–  Energy
–  Sustainable Energy
–  Environmental Science
–  Climate Change and Global Warming
–  Human Health and Environmental Risk
–  Applied Science and Engineering
–  Social Sciences Studies
–  Medicine Science

Keywords

Agriculture:
Plant Sciences in Agriculture
Animal Health and Husbandry
Agriculture Technologies
Sustainable Agriculture
Nutritional Genomics and Food
Agriculture and Natural Resources
Agriculture Sectoral Studies
Animal and Livestock

Business and Trade:
Business Economics and Finance
Business Sustainability Management
Entrepreneurship and Business Growth
Information systems innovation and Operations
Leadership and management
Marketing, Sales and Client Relationships
Program and Project Management
Strategy and Change Management

Energy:
Sustainable Energy
Renewable and Non-renewable Energies
Energy Resources and Technologies
Energy Policy, Economics, and Politics
Power System
Power Electronics
Phonetics and IoT
Generation, Transmission and Distribution

Environmental Science:
Climate Science
Global Warming Studies
Environmental Systems and Technologies
Human Health and Environmental Risk
Environmental Sustainability
Ecosystem Science
Natural Resource Systems
Geospatial Analysis

Applied Science and Engineering:
Civil Engineering
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Computer Science Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Energy Engineering
Urban and Architecture Engineering
General Engineering Themes

Social Sciences Studies:
Social and Community Studies
Social Anthropology Studies
Social Statistics Studies
Civic and Political Studies
Criminology and Law Studies
Philosophy and Sociology Studies
Global Studies
General Studies Mathematics

Special Issue of the SODC-2019

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
Afghanistan fuel market prediction
Rahmaty H, Ershad AM, and Sabory N.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 1-12  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

Afghanistan is an underdeveloped country with a good rebuilding and developing potential. It is obvious that the amount of energy consumption of each country directly affects its economy and GDP. All economic activities are directly or indirectly linked to the energy sector. That is why the energy sector is considered a backbone of the countries development as well as means of achieving sustainable economic development.   Accurate evaluation and studying of the energy market and prediction of the future’s energy market is significant to taking proper decisions, making effective and applicable energy policies and goals regarding energy policies. Consequently, it will have a huge influence on the economic and political future of a country. Fossil fuel has a huge share among the energy consumption sources, as well as playing the main role to run the power sector, transportation sector, and industrial sectors. Exports of fossil fuel are also somehow linked to a proper analysis of the internal demand and production rate as well as capacity in the future. In this research, we present Afghanistan’s fuel demand and its future situation prediction by 2032, based on three scenarios. It has been the first time that such research is performed in Afghanistan and will enable energy and fossil fuel sectors to use, analyze, and explore the findings of this research for the purpose of strategic planning, export and import predictions.

Citation

REPA 

Rahmaty H, Ershad AM, Sabory NR (2020) “Afghanistan fuel market prediction” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–12) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01


APA

Rahmaty, H., Ershad, A. M., & Sabory, N. R. (2020). Afghanistan fuel market prediction. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01


MLA 

Rahmaty, Hasibullah, et al. “Afghanistan Fuel Market Prediction.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 1–12. Crossref, doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01.


Vancouver 

Rahmaty H, Ershad AM, Sabory NR. Afghanistan fuel market prediction. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):1–12.


Chicago 

Rahmaty, Hasibullah, Ahmad Murtaza Ershad, and Najib Rahman Sabory. 2020. “Afghanistan Fuel Market Prediction.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01.


Elsevier

Rahmaty H, Ershad AM, Sabory NR. Afghanistan fuel market prediction. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:1–12. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01.


IEEE

Rahmaty, A. M. Ershad, and N. R. Sabory, “Afghanistan fuel market prediction,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–12, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01.


Springer

Rahmaty, H., Ershad, A.M., Sabory, N.R.: Afghanistan fuel market prediction. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 1–12 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.01.

Authors
Hasibullah Rahmaty
Ahmad Murtaza Ershad
Najib Rahman Sabory
References
  1. Vehicles per 1000 people - comparison between Afghanistan and Madagas (2019) Macro Economy Meter (http://mecometer.com/compare/afghanistan+ madagascar/vehicles­per­thousand­people/) Accessed: 6 January 2019

     

  2. Pajhwok Afghan News (2019) “Oil in Afghanistan” Pajhwok Afghan News (/content/oil-afghanistan) Accessed: 29 January 2019

     

  3. Khalazaie M (2019) “Developments in the oil and gas sector of Afghanistan” Kakar Advocates Law Firm LLC (https://www.kakaradvocates.com/developments-in-the-oil-and-gas-hydrocarbons-sector-of-afghanistan/) Accessed: 12 November 2019

     

  4. Inter-ministerial Commission of Energy (ICE) Secretariat, Ministry of Economy - Afghanistan (2016) “Quarterly energy sector status summary report: Quarter three 2016” Quraterly Kabul, Afghanistan, Inter-ministerial Commission of Energy (ICE) Secretariat, Ministry of Economy - Afghanistan. (https://sites. google.com/site/iceafghanistan/) Accessed: 14 December 2018

     

  5. Fichtner GmbH (2018) “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Power sector master plan” (https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/76570/43497-012-afg-tacr.pdf) Accessed: 19 August 2019

     

  6. Shinwary K (2018) “Number of vehicles in Afghanistan” US Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Compare cars side-by-side (https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/Find.do?action=sbsSelect) Accessed: 18 May 2018

     

  7. Fuel economy (2019) US Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Compare cars side-by-side (https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/ Find.do?action=sbs&id=1153&id=12502&id=21479 &id=35595)

     

  8. Microsaft (2019) “Forecasting functions (reference)” Microsaft Support (https://support.microsoft. com/en-us/office/forecasting-functions-reference-897a2fe9-6595-4680-a0b0-93e0308d5f6e) Accessed: 19 January 2019 

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
Development of hydropower in Afghanistan for clean and sustainable energy
Ghubar N, and Shirani H.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 13-21  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

There are promising opportunities to produce clean and sustainable energy from micro, mini, small and large hydropower plants in Afghanistan. The Government of Afghanistan has planned to build several hydropower plants. One of them is Baghdara Dam Hydro-Power project in Kapisa province and is expected to produce 210 MW. In the feasibility study, two dam axis configurations were considered, one creating a small reservoir, the other creating a large reservoir. However, a recommendation comparing advantages and disadvantages was not addressed. In this paper, we compare possible Baghdara Dam axis locations and recommend one for future construction that produces optimal electric power, especially during the winter season, and provides clean potable water to New Kabul City. We have determined that dam location A (with a small reservoir) would need a long tunnel to the power station, which requires advanced technology and accurate geological surveying that is not available in Afghanistan. Axis D (with a large reservoir) will recharge downstream hydropower plants such as Kapar (120 MW), Naghlo (100 MW), Sarobi-1 (22 MW), Sarobi-2 (180 MW), and Daronta (12 MW). The large reservoir will also stop sediment ponding at the Naghlo hydropower reservoir. This case study shares an in-depth technical and practical lessons-learned with researchers, students, and practitioners.

Citation

REPA 

Ghubar N, Shirani H (2020) “Development of hydropower in Afghanistan for clean and sustainable energy” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 13–21) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02


APA

Ghubar, N., & Shirani, H. (2020). Development of hydropower in Afghanistan for clean and sustainable energy. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 13–21. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02


MLA 

Ghubar, Naqibullah, and Habiburahman Shirani. “Development of Hydropower in Afghanistan for Clean and Sustainable Energy.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 13–21. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02.


Vancouver 

Ghubar N, Shirani H. Development of hydropower in Afghanistan for clean and sustainable energy. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):13–21.


Chicago 

Ghubar, Naqibullah, and Habiburahman Shirani. 2020. “Development of Hydropower in Afghanistan for Clean and Sustainable Energy.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 13–21. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02.


Elsevier

Ghubar N, Shirani H. Development of hydropower in Afghanistan for clean and sustainable energy. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:13–21. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02.


IEEE

Ghubar and H. Shirani, “Development of hydropower in Afghanistan for clean and sustainable energy,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 13–21, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02.


Springer

Ghubar, N., Shirani, H.: Development of hydropower in Afghanistan for clean and sustainable energy. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 13–21 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.02.

Authors
Naqibullah Ghubar
 
Habiburahman Shirani
References
  1. Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) - Afghanistan (2017) “Afghanistan Renewable Energy Policy” (Afghanistan Renewable Energy Policy) Accessed: 16 November 2019

     

  2. Yüksel I (2008) “Hydropower in Turkey for a clean and sustainable energy future” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1622–1640) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2007.01.024

     

  3. Kaygusuz K (2004) “Hydropower and the World’s Energy Future” Energy Sources (vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 215–224) https://doi.org/10.1080/00908310490256572

     

  4. DABS Energy Policy (2019) Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) (https://main.dabs.af/EnergySalesProcedure) Accessed: 16 April 2020

     

  5. World Energy Outlook 2018 (2018) Analysis Paris, France, International Energy Agency (IEA). (https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2018) Accessed: 16 April 2020

     

  6. Dincer I, Acar C (2015) “A review on clean energy solutions for better sustainability” International Journal of Energy Research (vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 585–606) https://doi.org/10.1002/er.3329

     

  7. World Energy Outlook (2019) International Energy Agency (AEI) (https://www.iea.org/topics/world-energy-outlook) Accessed: 16 November 2019

     

  8. Sharifi MS (2009) “Electric Residential Load Growth in Kabul City-Afghanistan for Sustainable Situation” (Thesis) Ohio, USA, Ohio University (https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=ohiou1257515533&disposition=inline) Accessed: 16 November 2019

     

  9. Fichtner GmbH (2018) “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Power sector master plan” (https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/76570/43497-012-afg-tacr.pdf) Accessed: 19 August 2019

     

  10. Cheng C, Liu B, Chau K-W, Li G, Liao S (2015) “China׳s small hydropower and its dispatching management” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (vol. 42, pp. 43–55) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014. 09.044

     

  11. The World Commission on Dams Framework - A Brief Introduction (2019) International Rivers (https://www.internationalrivers.org/resources/the-world-commission-on-dams-framework-a-brief-introduction-2654) Accessed: 16 November 2019

     

  12. Baghdara Dam project feasibility study report (2018) Kabul, Afghanistan, Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) - Afghanistan.

     

  13. Sediqi M “River Engineering,” 1st ed. Kabul, Afghanistan, Kabul Poly Technic University.

     

  14. Existing hydropower information center (2020) Technical Report Kabul, Afghanistan, Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) - Afghanistan.

     

  15. Afghanistan Energy Information Center (2019) AEIC - Ministry of Energy and Water - Afghanistan (http://aeic.af/) Accessed: 6 March 2020

     

  16. Hydropower Status Report (2019) International Hydropower Association (IHA) (https://www.hydropower.org/statusreport) Accessed: 16 November 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
A typical design for energy-efficient building: A case study of zero energy building 
Ahmadi AM, Sabori NR, and Halim M.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 22-31  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

Recently, the consumption of energy in residential buildings has increased. On one hand, urbanization increased energy consumption in residential buildings. On the other hand, construction of nonstandard buildings especially residential buildings, caused excessive energy waste. Implementation of energy efficiency and zero-energy building strategies is one of the best solutions to decrease energy waste and energy intensity in a residential building in Kabul City. This research is conducted to design typical energy-efficient and zero energy building strategies for Kabul City. The majority of people use unrefined fossil fuels for heating. As we know, fossil fuels cause environmental pollution. To burn these fuels, most greenhouse gases GHGs emissions are released in the atmosphere, and these GHGs are very harmful to health and cause different types of illnesses. This study is performed in two stages.  First, the construction cost of a customarily built building is calculated. Then, the heat loss and heat gain of this inefficient building are also calculated. The same procedure is repeated for a more efficient and insulated building. After comparing, it is revealed that an insulated building saves 65% of the energy and emits 60% less CO2 compared to the inefficient building.  To make this building a zero-energy building, we tried using photovoltaic technology. All-electric loads for this building are calculated, and the components of the photovoltaic system are designed accordingly. Finally, the implementation of energy-efficient and zero-energy building has lots of benefits of cost-saving, being environment-friendly, reduced illness, and individual sustainability for each building.

Citation

REPA 

Ahmadi AM, Sabori NR, Halim M (2020) “A typical design for energy-efficient building: A case study of zero energy building” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22–31) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03


APA

Ahmadi, A. M., Sabori, N. R., & Halim, M. (2020). A typical design for energy-efficient building: A case study of zero energy building. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03


MLA 

Ahmadi, Ahmad Masih, et al. “A Typical Design for Energy-Efficient Building: A Case Study of Zero Energy Building.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 22–31. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03.


Vancouver 

Ahmadi AM, Sabori NR, Halim M. A typical design for energy-efficient building: A case study of zero energy building. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):22–31.


Chicago 

Ahmadi, Ahmad Masih, Najib Rahman Sabori, and Mustafa Halim. 2020. “A Typical Design for Energy-Efficient Building: A Case Study of Zero Energy Building.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 22–31. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03.


Elsevier

Ahmadi AM, Sabori NR, Halim M. A typical design for energy-efficient building: A case study of zero energy building. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:22–31. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03.


IEEE

M. Ahmadi, N. R. Sabori, and M. Halim, “A typical design for energy-efficient building: A case study of zero energy building,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22–31, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03.


Springer

Ahmadi, A.M., Sabori, N.R., Halim, M.: A typical design for energy-efficient building: A case study of zero energy building. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 22–31 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.03.

Authors
Ahmad Masih Ahmadi
 
Najib Rahman Sabori
 
Mustafa Halim
References
  1. Baumert KA, Herzog T, Pershing J (2005) “Navigating the numbers: Greenhouse gas data and international climate policy” Washington DC., USA, World Resources Institute. (https://pdf.wri.org/navigating_numbers.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  2. Hauge ÅL, Thomsen J, Berker T (2011) “User evaluations of energy efficient buildings: Literature review and further research” Advances in Building Energy Research (vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 109–127) https://doi.org/10.1080/17512549.2011.582350

     

  3. Abbaszadeh S, Zagreus L, Lehrer D, Huizenga C (2006) “Occupant satisfaction with indoor environmental quality in green buildings” Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2006 Lisboa, Portugal, International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ), vol. 3 - pp. 365–370. (https://escholarship.org/uc/item/9rf7p4bs) Accessed: 3 May 2020

     

  4. Wang S (2000) “Handbook of air conditioning and refrigeration,” 2nd ed. New York, USA, McGraw-hill. 1232 p. ISBN: 978-0-07-068167-5

     

  5. Weather Spark (2018) “The typical weather anywhere on earth” (https://weatherspark.com) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  6. Temori MO (2017) “Energy efficiency guidebook for buildings / Mohammad Omar Temori ; design and layout Ahmad Sear Sharifi.,” 1st ed. Kabul, Afghanistan, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). 172 p. ISBN: 2019-11-01 (http://afghandata.org:8080/xmlui/handle/azu/20995) Accessed: 24 April 2020

     

  7. A common definition for zero Energy buildings (2015) Washington DC., USA, U.S. Department of Energy. (https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/20 15/09/f26/ACommonDefinitionforZeroEnergyBuildings.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
Assessment of carbon pollution in Kabul river and its solutions based on the material flow analysis model, ESRISS
Oria S, and Sadat SH.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 32-38  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

Kabul river is the main river in Kabul city and eastern Afghanistan which passes through 200 kilometers of the heart of Kabul. For the river to serve its ecological purposes, like water supply and environmental quality control, water flow should be optimized both in terms of quantity and quality. However, the water in its inundation season, spring, is very high in pollution and the river bed is waterless and full of solid wastes throughout the rest of the year. The goal of this research was to present a quantitative assessment of carbon as a water quality parameter in Kabul river in the geography of Afghanistan, to detect probable sources of this pollutant and to suggest feasible pollution management approaches. The study was based on the Material Flow Analysis (MFA) model, developed by the Egyptian-Swiss Research on Innovation in Sustainable Sanitation (ESRISS) Project. The effect of hydropower dams, in the concentration of carbon in the river, as a water quality parameter, was evaluated. A segment of the river between the Naghlo hydropower dam and the Darunta dam was chosen for carbon content analysis. As a result of this analysis, we can provide data for carbon quantity in the specified segment of the river. Moreover, we will be able to apply this methodology for providing water quality analysis for almost any segment of the river and suggest relevant feasible solutions for water pollution problems.

Citation

REPA 

Oria S, Sadat SH (2020) “Assessment of carbon pollution in Kabul river and its solutions based on the material flow analysis model, ESRISS” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 32–38) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04


APA

Oria, S., & Sadat, S. H. (2020). Assessment of carbon pollution in Kabul river and its solutions based on the material flow analysis model, ESRISS. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 32–38. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04


MLA 

Oria, Sosan, and Sayed Hashmat Sadat. “Assessment of Carbon Pollution in Kabul River and Its Solutions Based on the Material Flow Analysis Model, ESRISS.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 32–38. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04.


Vancouver 

Oria S, Sadat SH. Assessment of carbon pollution in Kabul river and its solutions based on the material flow analysis model, ESRISS. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):32–8.


Chicago 

Oria, Sosan, and Sayed Hashmat Sadat. 2020. “Assessment of Carbon Pollution in Kabul River and Its Solutions Based on the Material Flow Analysis Model, ESRISS.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 32–38. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04.


Elsevier

Oria S, Sadat SH. Assessment of carbon pollution in Kabul river and its solutions based on the material flow analysis model, ESRISS. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:32–8. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04.


IEEE

Oria and S. H. Sadat, “Assessment of carbon pollution in Kabul river and its solutions based on the material flow analysis model, ESRISS,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 32–38, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04.


Springer

Oria, S., Sadat, S.H.: Assessment of carbon pollution in Kabul river and its solutions based on the material flow analysis model, ESRISS. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 32–38 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.04.

Authors
Sosan Oria
Sayed Hashmat Sadat
References
  1. Laner D, Rechberger H (2016) “Material flow analysis” In: Finkbeiner M - editor. Special Types of Life Cycle Assessment , 1st ed. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands - pp. 293–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/ 978-94-017-7610-3_7

     

  2. Serikova S, Pokrovsky OS, Ala-Aho P, Kazantsev V, Kirpotin SN, et al. (2018) “High riverine CO2 emissions at the permafrost boundary of Western Siberia” Nat Geosci (vol. 11, pp. 825–829) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0218-1

     

  3. Montangero A (2007) “Material flow analysis: A tool to assess material flows for environmental sanitation planning in developing countries” Dübendorf, Switzerland, Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. (https://www.eawag.ch/fileadmin/Domain1/Abtelungen/sandec/schwerpunkte/sesp/ESRISS/pdfs/mfa_guidelines.pdf) Accessed: 16 January 2020

     

  4. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) (2017) “Naghlu hydropower rehabilitation project (NHRP)” (https://main.dabs.af/uploads/reports/0a4011d949df3547f10cda5c90cf0364.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  5. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) (2011) “Electricity statistics” Kabul, Afghanistan, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS).

     

  6. Laughton MA, Say MG (2013) “Turbines and diesel plants” Electrical Engineer’s Reference Book , 14th ed. Elsevier - pp. 992.

     

  7. Global Energy Observation (2015) “Sarobi Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant Afghanistan - GEO” Global Energy Observation (http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/40535) Accessed: 16 January 2020

     

  8. Hydro Review (2015) “Afghans seek civil engineer to oversee substation rehab at 100-MW Naghlu hydro project” Hydro Review (https://www.hydroreview.com/2015/09/15/afghans-seek-civil-engineer-to-oversee-substation-rehab-at-100-mw-naghlu-hydro-project/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  9. Wadsam (2013) “USAID suspends work on the rehabilitation of Darunta Dam” Wadsam (https://wadsam.com/afghan-business-news/usaid-suspends-work-on-the-rehabilitation-of-darunta-dam-242/) Accessed: 16 January 2020

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
A GIS-based approach for rural electrification planning in Afghanistan with focus on renewable energy
Rasooli Z, Arzoo Z, and Puya M.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 39-45  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and clean electricity, goal 7 of SDG, interconnected with 5 other goals and 125 (out of 169) targets of SDGs, is an essential factor to the success of any economic growth strategy. While 89 percent of households reported having access to any kind of electricity forms in the 2013-2014 (Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey), only 29.7 percent received their power from the grid, which covers only a small portion of electrified rural households. To select the most appropriate options for electrification of rural areas, a multicriteria decision-making approach has been used. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a multicriteria decision-making method used combined with GIS to analyze different options. In this paper, a methodology framework incorporating decision analysis techniques has been presented to evaluate and determine a suitable energy system for rural electrification with a perspective on sustainable development goals. Renewable energy, diesel generator, and national grid expansion have been compared to different options from different views and criteria.

Citation

REPA 

Rasooli Z, Arzoo Z, Puya M (2020) “A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39–45) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05


APA

Rasooli, Z., Arzoo, Z., & Puya, M. (2020). A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 39–45. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05


MLA 

Rasooli, Zahra, et al. “A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 39–45. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05.


Vancouver 

Rasooli Z, Arzoo Z, Puya M. A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):39–45.


Chicago 

Rasooli, Zahra, Zarifa Arzoo, and Marzia Puya. 2020. “A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 39–45. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05.


Elsevier

Rasooli Z, Arzoo Z, Puya M. A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:39–45. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05.


IEEE

Rasooli, Z. Arzoo, and M. Puya, “A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39–45, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05.


Springer

Rasooli, Z., Arzoo, Z., Puya, M.: A GIS-Based Approach for Rural Electrification Planning in Afghanistan with Focus on Renewable Energy. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 39–45 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.05.

Authors
Zahra Rasooli
Zarifa Arzoo
Marzia Puya
References
  1. Nilsson M, Griggs D, Visbeck M, Ringler C, McCollum D (2017) “A guide to SDG interactions: from science to implementation” Paris, France, International Council for Science (ICSU). (http://www.icsu.org/publications/a-guide-to-sdg-interactions-from-science-to-implementation) Accessed: 22 April 2020

     

  2. Tracking SDG7 Report (2019) The Energy progress report Washington DC, USA, IEA, IRENA, UNSD, WB, WHO. (https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/May/2019-Tracking-SDG7-Report.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  3. Amin M, Bernell D (2018) “Power sector reform in Afghanistan: Barriers to achieving universal access to electricity” Energy Policy (vol. 123, pp. 72–82) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.08.010

     

  4. Afghanistan renewable energy development Issues and options (2018) Washington, D.C., World Bank Group. (http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/352991530527393098/Afghanistan-renewable-energy-development-issues-and-options)

     

  5. Paudel U, Khatri U, Pant KP (2018) “Understanding the determinants of household cooking fuel choice in Afghanistan: A multinomial logit estimation” Energy (vol. 156, pp. 55–62) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.085

     

  6. Burns RK (2011) “Afghanistan: Solar assets, electricity production, and rural energy factors” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 2144–2148) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.12.002

     

  7. Hakimi M, Baniasadi E, Afshari E (2020) “Thermo-economic analysis of photovoltaic, central tower receiver and parabolic trough power plants for Herat city in Afghanistan” Renewable Energy (vol. 150, pp. 840–853) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.01.009

     

  8. Fichtner GmbH (2013) “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Power Sector Master Plan” Fichtner GmbH. 451 p. (https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/76570/43497-012-afg-tacr.pdf)

     

  9. Ershad AM, Brecha RJ, Hallinan K (2016) “Analysis of solar photovoltaic and wind power potential in Afghanistan” Renewable Energy (vol. 85, pp. 445–453) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.06.067

     

  10. Mainali B, Silveira S (2013) “Alternative pathways for providing access to electricity in developing countries” Renewable Energy (vol. 57, pp. 299–310) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.01.057

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
A brief overview of Kabul city electrification
Shirzai K, and Sabory NR.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 46-51  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

Kabul faces challenges with fulfilling energy demand using a problematic conventional electrical grid.  Its transportation system is disorganized, and ICT infrastructure is limited as the population growth rate is increasing.  Kabul should determine feasible and efficient plans to make its energy system more sustainable and smart.  Afghanistan energy utility Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat- (DABS) provided electricity demand, consumption, import, amount of thermal electricity and thermal generation data for this research. The data about ICT infrastructure has been extracted  from SIGAR reports and transportation data has been obtained from the transportation department in Kabul. Population data come from Afghanistan Central Statistics Organization (CSO). In summary, usage of solar, wind, hydro and biomass energies and electricity by transmission lines are the most feasible and efficient ways to provide the needed electricity.  A smart grid can be established through smart metering and energy efficiency as well as some measurement programs. Improved ICT infrastructure can benefit citizens with lower prices, better service, and increased competition. Finally, transportation systems options like electric vehicle (EV), public transportation, and ATMS are recommended.

Citation

REPA 

Shirzai K, Sabory NR (2020) “A brief overview of Kabul city electrification” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 46–51) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06


APA 

Shirzai, K., & Sabory, N. R. (2020). A brief overview of Kabul city electrification. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 46–51. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06


MLA 

Shirzai, Khatera, and Najib Rahman Sabory. “A Brief Overview of Kabul City Electrification.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 46–51. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06.


Vancouver 

Shirzai K, Sabory NR. A brief overview of Kabul city electrification. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):46–51.


Chicago 

Shirzai, Khatera, and Najib Rahman Sabory. 2020. “A Brief Overview of Kabul City Electrification.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 46–51. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06.


Elsevier

Shirzai K, Sabory NR. A brief overview of Kabul city electrification. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:46–51. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06.


IEEE

Shirzai and N. R. Sabory, “A brief overview of Kabul city electrification,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 46–51, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06.


Springer

Shirzai, K., Sabory, N.R.: A brief overview of Kabul city electrification. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 46–51 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.06.

Authors
Khatera Shirzai
Najib Rahman Sabory
References
  1. Lund H, Østergaard PA, Connolly D, Mathiesen BV (2017) “Smart energy and smart energy systems” Energy (vol. 137, pp. 556–565) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.05.123

     

  2. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) (2011) “Electricity statistics” Kabul, Afghanistan, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS).

     

  3. Fichtner GmbH (2018) “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Power sector master plan” (https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/76570/43497-012-afg-tacr.pdf) Accessed: 19 August 2019

     

  4. Sasaki (2017) “Kabul urban design framework,” 1st ed. Kabul, Afghanistan, Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. (https://www.sasaki.com/projects/kabul-urban-design-framework/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  5. Renewable energy roadmap for Afghanistan (2015-2017) (2017) Kabul, Afghanistan, Asian Development Bank (ADB). (https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/151922/47266-001-tar.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  6. Salman SK (2017) “Introduction to the smart grid: Concepts, technologies and evolution,” 1st ed. London, UK, IET Digital Library. p. ISBN: 978-1-78561-120-9 (https://digital-library.theiet.org/content/books/po/pbpo094e) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  7. General Directorate of Traffic - Ministry of Interior Affairs MoI - Afghanistan (2019) “Kabul traffic statistics” (http://old.moi.gov.af/en/page/directorates/general-directorate-of-traffic)

     

  8. Empowering the world to breathe cleaner air (2019) (https://www.airvisual.com)

     

  9. Afghanistan’s information and communications technology sector: U.S. agencies obligated over $2.6 billion to the sector, but the full scope of U.S. efforts is unknown (2016) Audit Report Virgina, USA, Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). (https://www.sigar.mil/pdf/audits/SIGAR-16-46-AR.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  10. Central Statistics Organization (CSO) - Afghanistan (2019) “Statistical indicators in Kabul province” Kabul, Afghanistan, Central Statistics Organization (CSO) - Afghanistan 

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
Effect of cost fluctuations of agriculture products on farmer’s lives in Kabul
Halim M.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 52-55  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

The lives of 85% of the people of Afghanistan depend on agriculture. Every year, sudden changes in the cost of agricultural products leave most farmers discouraged as they suffer financial losses and considered as the most vulnerable in the society. This research is focused on the effects of agricultural cost fluctuation on the life of the farmers, identify root causes, and describe the role of the agriculture department in managing these changes using questionnaires. Qarabagh, Charaseab, Paghaman, Shakerdare, and Dehsabz are selected for this study. Random sampling selected 30 farmers as respondents. Questionnaires, interviews, and documentary reviews are used to collect data, which were analyzed using interpretive and reflexive qualitative approaches and descriptive statistics. The research shows that price fluctuation of agricultural products discourages farmers from striving for a better life.

Citation

REPA 

Halim M (2020) “Effect of cost fluctuations of agriculture products on farmer’s lives in Kabul” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 52–55) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07


APA

Halim, M. (2020). Effect of cost fluctuations of agriculture products on farmer’s lives in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 52–55. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07


MLA 

Halim, Mursal. “Effect of Cost Fluctuations of Agriculture Products on Farmer’s Lives in Kabul.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 52–55. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07.


Vancouver 

Halim M. Effect of cost fluctuations of agriculture products on farmer’s lives in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):52–5.


Chicago 

Halim, Mursal. 2020. “Effect of Cost Fluctuations of Agriculture Products on Farmer’s Lives in Kabul.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 52–55. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07.


Elsevier

Halim M. Effect of cost fluctuations of agriculture products on farmer’s lives in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:52–5. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07.


IEEE

Halim, “Effect of cost fluctuations of agriculture products on farmer’s lives in Kabul,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 52–55, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07.


Springer

Halim, M.: Effect of cost fluctuations of agriculture products on farmer’s lives in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 52–55 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.07.

Authors
Mursal Halim
References
  1. MIS Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock – Afghanistan (2019) “Agriculture statistics” (https://www.mail.gov.af/en) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  2. Pinstrup‐Andersen P (2014) “Contemporary food policy challenges and opportunities” Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics (vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 504–518) https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8489.12019

     

  3. Blocher E, Stout D, Juras P, Cokins G (2015) “Cost Management: A Strategic Emphasis,” 7th ed. New York, USA, McGraw-hill. p. ISBN: 978-0-07-773377-3 (https://www.mheducation.com/highered/product/cost-management-strategic-emphasis-blocher-stout/M9780077733773.html) Accessed: 22 April 2020

     

  4. Huka H, Ruoja C, Mchopa A (2014) “Price Fluctuation of Agricultural Products and its Impact on Small Scale Farmers Development: Case Analysis from Kilimanjaro Tanzania” European Journal of Business and Management (vol. 6, no. 36, pp. 155–160)

     

  5. Moore DS (2009) “The basic practice of statistics,” Fifth edition New York, USA, W. H. Freeman. 704 p. ISBN: 978-1-4292-2426-0

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
Electricity and heat supply to Kabul industrial parks using renewable energy sources
Ebrahimi N, Sabory NR, and Anwarzai MA.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 56-69  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

Industry has leading contribution in the economic development of the nations, however this sector needs a systematic and sustainable roadmap. From the planning point of view, there should be an IP (Industrial Park) with basic facilities such as water supply, sewerage system, electricity, access roads, and other entities, electricity and heat could be one of the key resources that drives the industrial parks. Kabul has three industrial parks, Pul-e-Charkhi, Arghandi, and Bagrami, and their total electrical demand is 180 MW (Kabul IPs utilize averagely daily in 8-hours of industrial activity 1440 MWh electrical energy). Da Afghanistan Breshna Shirkat (DABS) provides only 100 MW. Therefore, industries complete their electrical shortage by burning fossil fuels and rely on fossil fuels.  Kabul IPs daily burn 141.86 toe of fossil fuel for thermal necessity and electric shortage. This fossil fuel creates environmental issues and pollution. According to the Afghanistan Metrology Organization (AMO), IPs are responsible for 30% of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions in Kabul city. One of the primary and best ways to solve this problem is the usage of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydro and geothermal energies. Kabul industrial parks annually paid $73.01 million, and the total cost of building the hybrid renewable plant of a CSP and Solar PVs is $545.36 million. The payback time is 7.5 years. In this study, we try to find the electrical and thermal demand of IPs, and after that, the feasibility of a renewable energy park by considering the Kabul IPs metrology data. Moreover, The feasibility of having an eco-industrial park has been studied.

Citation

REPA 

Ebrahimi N, Sabory NR, Anwarzai MA (2020) “Electricity and heat supply to Kabul industrial parks using renewable energy sources” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 56–69) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08


APA

Ebrahimi, N., Sabory, N. R., & Anwarzai, M. A. (2020). Electricity and heat supply to Kabul industrial parks using renewable energy sources. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 56–69. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08


MLA 

Ebrahimi, Najibullah, et al. “Electricity and Heat Supply to Kabul Industrial Parks Using Renewable Energy Sources.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 56–69. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08.


Vancouver 

Ebrahimi N, Sabory NR, Anwarzai MA. Electricity and heat supply to Kabul industrial parks using renewable energy sources. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):56–69.


Chicago 

Ebrahimi, Najibullah, Najib Rahman Sabory, and Mohammad Abed Anwarzai. 2020. “Electricity and Heat Supply to Kabul Industrial Parks Using Renewable Energy Sources.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 56–69. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08.


Elsevier

Ebrahimi N, Sabory NR, Anwarzai MA. Electricity and heat supply to Kabul industrial parks using renewable energy sources. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:56–69. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08.


IEEE

Ebrahimi, N. R. Sabory, and M. A. Anwarzai, “Electricity and heat supply to Kabul industrial parks using renewable energy sources,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 56–69, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08.


Springer

Ebrahimi, N., Sabory, N.R., Anwarzai, M.A.: Electricity and heat supply to Kabul industrial parks using renewable energy sources. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 56–69 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.08.

Authors
Najibullah Ebrahimi
Najib Rahman Sabory
Mohammad Abed Anwarzai
References
  1. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) (2019) “Afghanistan industrial parks electricity necessity” (https://moci.gov.af/en/industrial-park) Accessed: 9 December 2019

     

  2. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MCI) - Afghanistan (2019) “Industrial data” (https://moci.gov.af/ en/industrial-park) Accessed: 14 October 2019

     

  3. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI) - Afghanistan (2019) “Industrial Parks” (https://moci.gov.af/ en/industrial-park) Accessed: 9 December 2019

     

  4. Najibullah E (2019) “Industrials” (Industrial Parks, Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI) - Afghanistan)

     

  5. Negah Y (2019) “Annual report” Kabul, Afghanistan, Afghanistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI). (https://www.acci.org.af/media/Annual ReportEnglish.pdf) Accessed: 1 October 2019

     

  6. Directorate of Analysis And Evaluation - Afghanistan Investment Support Agency (AISA) (2013) “Industrial parks in Afghanistan: Growth, challenges and recommendation” Analytical report Kabul, Afghanistan, Directorate of Analysis And Evaluation - Afghanistan Investment Support Agency (AISA). (https://iccia.com/sites/default/files/library/files/IndustrialParkReport.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  7. Afghanistan metrology data (2019) Afghanistan Metrology Organization (AMO) (http://www.amd.gov. af) Accessed: 14 November 2019

     

  8. Anwarzai MA (2018) “Research and analysis of Afghanistan’s wind, solar, and geothermal resources potential” (Doctoral Dissertation) Tokyo, Japan, Search Results Web results Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (https://tuat.repo.nii.ac.jp/ ?action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=1487&item_no=1&attribute_id=16&file_no=1) Accessed: 4 July 2020

     

  9. Map showing the location of Deh Sabz, Kabul, Afghanistan (100m) (2019) (https://globalwindatlas.info) Accessed: 28 November 2019

     

  10. Map showing the location of Deh Sabz, Kabul, Afghanistan (50) (2019) (https://globalwindatlas.info) Accessed: 28 November 2019

     

  11. Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) - Afghanistan (2018) “Afghanistan agrometeorological bulleting” (http://mew.gov.af/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  12. Central Statistics Organization (CSO) - Afghanistan (2019) “Statistical indicators in Kabul province” Kabul, Afghanistan, Central Statistics Organization (CSO) - Afghanistan.

     

  13. SunPower (2019) “400–425 W residential AC module” (https://us.sunpower.com/sites/default/files/ spr-a-series-425-415-400-g-ac-datasheet-532618-revb.pdf) Accessed: 7 July 2019

     

  14. Singal L, Harats Y (2016) “Hybrid renewable energy parks” (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lavl een_Singal/publication/303371155_Hybrid_Renewble_Eergy_Parks/links/573ec7ce08ae9f741b31dbd5/Hybrid-Renewable-Energy-Parks.pdf?origin=figuresDialog) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  15. Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) - Afghanistan (2019) “Afghanistan energy condition” (http://mew. gov.af/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  16. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MCI) - Afghanistan “Industries development” (https://moci .gov.af/ en/industrial-park) Accessed: 14 October 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access      Published  
Optimum solution for plastic waste reduction in Kabul city
Nazari N, Sabory NR, and Mohsini S.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 70-76  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

This research is about management of the sewer and drainage system in Kabul city, which is predicted to continue growing in population. According to the new Master Plan, the city population will grow from 4.5 million in 2017 to 9 million by 2050.  Kabul’s rapid population growth has put pressure on its economy, social services, and housing. However, the major urban systems such as roads, water supply, and sewage were poorly planned and implemented.  In this article, we will analyze the current problems of sewage in Kabul as it does not have a pre-established municipal sewage system. Kabul’s management, and control of wastewater is compared with the various cities around the world. In this research, a new approach is proposed for the Master Plan improvement considering review of similar cities in the world and a case study of Omid-e-Sabz, a town west of Kabul.

Citation

REPA 

Nazari N, Sabory NR, Mohsini S (2020) “Optimum solution for plastic waste reduction in Kabul city” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 70–76) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09


APA

Nazari, N., Sabory, N. R., & Mohsini, S. (2020). Optimum solution for plastic waste reduction in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 70–76. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09


MLA 

Nazari, Nazanin, et al. “Optimum Solution for Plastic Waste Reduction in Kabul City.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 70–76. Crossref, doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09.


Vancouver 

Nazari N, Sabory NR, Mohsini S. Optimum solution for plastic waste reduction in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):70–6.


Chicago 

Nazari, Nazanin, Najib Rahman Sabory, and Shuaib Mohsini. 2020. “Optimum Solution for Plastic Waste Reduction in Kabul City.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 70–76. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09.


Elsevier

Nazari N, Sabory NR, Mohsini S. Optimum solution for plastic waste reduction in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:70–6. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09.


IEEE

Nazari, N. R. Sabory, and S. Mohsini, “Optimum solution for plastic waste reduction in Kabul city,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 70–76, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09.


Springer

Nazari, N., Sabory, N.R., Mohsini, S.: Optimum solution for plastic waste reduction in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 70–76 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.09.

Authors
Nazanin Nazari
Najib Rahman Sabory
Shuaib Mohsini
References
  1. Ali SS, Ijaz N, Aman N, Noor EM (2017) “Feasibility study of low density waste plastic in non load bearing asphalt pavement in district faisalabad” Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP) (vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 17–18)

     

  2. Napper IE, Bakir A, Rowland SJ, Thompson RC (2015) “Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics” Mar Pollut Bull (vol. 99, no. 1–2, pp. 178–185) https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.029

     

  3. Kenya bans plastic bags (2011) The Independent (http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/kenya-bans-plastic-bags-2179928.html) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  4. Jambeck JR, Geyer R, Wilcox C, Siegler TR, Perryman M, et al. (2015) “Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean” Science (vol. 347, no. 6223, pp. 768–771) https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260352

     

  5. Clean Up (2015) “Report on actions to reduce circulation of single-use plastic bags around the world: August 2015” (https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/ed 061800/files/uploaded/cua_plastic_bag_usage_around_world_august-2015.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  6. Barnes DKA, Galgani F, Thompson RC, Barlaz M (2009) “Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments” Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B, Biol Sci (vol. 364, no. 1526, pp. 1985–1998) https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0205

     

  7. Gold Fortune (2019) “Natural jute burlap shopping tote bags with cotton handles buttoned closure front” Amazon (https://www.amazon.com/Natural-Shopping-Handles-Buttoned-Closure/dp/B06XQZXP38) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  8. Wholesale kraft paper bags supplier (2019) TradeMart Exports (http://www.trademartexports.com/ kraft-paper-bags.htm) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  9. Kabul Municipality (2019) “Solid waste audit in Kabul” (https://km.gov.af/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access     Published  
A case study of an educational building transformation to renewable energy
Kohistani MF, Sabory NR, Zarabie AK, and Ahmadi M.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 77-88  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

This is an economic and technical feasibility analysis of a pilot project on transitioning energy usage to renewable and sustainable sources of energy for the Engineering School at Kabul University from economic, security, and academic considerations. The objectives of this research are improving energy security and sustainability, achieving economic benefits, and reflecting the advantages of renewable energy for Afghanistan's sustainable development. Energy demand for the Engineering School is calculated before and after transitioning to adaptable renewable energy resources. The total initial cost of a new system is about 14,237,771AFN with an operation and maintenance (O&M) cost of 341,862.74 AFN/year with the payback time of investment of fewer than 4.5 years. Based on this investigation, we found that it is economical and technically feasible to switch to renewable and sustainable sources of energy, especially in commercial and governmental buildings.

Citation

REPA 

Kohistani MF, Sabory NR, Zarabie AK, Ahmadi M (2020) “A case study of an educational building transformation to renewable energy” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 77–88) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10


APA

Kohistani, M. F., Sabory, N. R., Zarabie, A. K., & Ahmadi, M. (2020). A case study of an educational building transformation to renewable energy. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10


MLA 

Kohistani, Mohammad Fahim, et al. “A Case Study of an Educational Building Transformation to Renewable Energy.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 77–88. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10.


Vancouver 

Kohistani MF, Sabory NR, Zarabie AK, Ahmadi M. A case study of an educational building transformation to renewable energy. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):77–88.


Chicago 

Kohistani, Mohammad Fahim, Najib Rahman Sabory, Ahmad Khalid Zarabie, and Mikaeel Ahmadi. 2020. “A Case Study of an Educational Building Transformation to Renewable Energy.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 77–88. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10.


Elsevier

Kohistani MF, Sabory NR, Zarabie AK, Ahmadi M. A case study of an educational building transformation to renewable energy. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:77–88. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10.


IEEE

F. Kohistani, N. R. Sabory, A. K. Zarabie, and M. Ahmadi, “A case study of an educational building transformation to renewable energy,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 77–88, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10.


Springer

Kohistani, M.F., Sabory, N.R., Zarabie, A.K., Ahmadi, M.: A case study of an educational building transformation to renewable energy. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 77–88 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.10.

Authors
Mohammad Fahim Kohistani
Najib Rahman Sabory
Ahmad Khalid Zarabie
Mikaeel Ahmadi
References
  1. National Statistics and Information Authority (NSIA) - Afghanistan (2019) “Yearbook Afghanistan statistical 2018-19” (https://www.nsia.gov.af:8080/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Afghanistan-Statistical-Yearbook-2018-19_compressed.pdf) Accessed: 15 April 2020

     

  2. General Directorate of Traffic - Ministry of Interior Affairs MoI - Afghanistan (2019) “Kabul traffic statistics” (http://old.moi.gov.af/en/page/directorates/general-directorate-of-traffic)

     

  3. Fiebig M, Wiartalla A, Holderbaum B, Kiesow S (2014) “Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology (vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 6) https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6673-9-6

     

  4. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on vegetation (2019) Air Pollution (http://www.air-quality.org.uk/15.php) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  5. Natural Resources Canada (2017) “Energy and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs)” Natural Resources Canada (https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/science-data/data-analysis/energy-data-analysis/energy-facts/energy-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-ghgs/20063) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  6. Sugarcane biofuels: Status, potential, and prospects of the sweet crop to fuel the world (2019), 1st ed. Berlin, Germany, Springer. 472 p. ISBN: 978-3-030-18596-1

     

  7. Methane (2019) Gas Innovations (https://gasinnovations.com/products/methane/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access     Published  
Impact of fuel consumption in the transportation sector on people, animals, and plant life in Kabul city
Faizi S, Sabory NR, and Layan AH.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 89-95  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

This research focused on fuel consumption and its dangerous emission and negative impact on people, animals, and plants’ life in Kabul city. This research is evaluated and described total fuel consumed by all vehicles as2,306,481 m3/year, in a separate form:911,542m3/year petrol consumption and1,394,939 m3/year diesel consumption. Also, the amount of pollution which is emitted from burning these fuel-based resources is 2,180,408ton/year CO2, 46 ton/year NOX, 529kg/year SOX from the total amount of petrol consumption, and 3,431,550ton/year CO2, 642 kg/year from diesel consumption. It is suggested to use applicable technologies and approaches to reduce fuel consumption and air pollution such as reducing trips, using public transportation, walking down and using bicycles, using biodiesel, preferring multiple occupant vehicles,  electrical bus infrastructure develop, and expanding the use of clean fuel vehicles, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG).

Citation

REPA 

Faizi S, Sabory NR, Layan AH (2020) “Impact of fuel consumption in the transportation sector on people, animals, and plant life in Kabul city” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 89–95) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11


APA

Faizi, S., Sabory, N. R., & Layan, A. H. (2020). Impact of fuel consumption in the transportation sector on people, animals, and plant life in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 89–95. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11


MLA 

Faizi, Shukria, et al. “Impact of Fuel Consumption in the Transportation Sector on People, Animals, and Plant Life in Kabul City, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 89–95. Crossref, doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11.


Vancouver 

Faizi S, Sabory NR, Layan AH. Impact of fuel consumption in the transportation sector on people, animals, and plant life in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):89–95.


Chicago 

Faizi, Shukria, Najib Rahman Sabory, and Abdul Hamid Layan. 2020. “Impact of Fuel Consumption in the Transportation Sector on People, Animals, and Plant Life in Kabul City.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 89–95. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11.


Elsevier

Faizi S, Sabory NR, Layan AH. Impact of fuel consumption in the transportation sector on people, animals, and plant life in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:89–95. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11.


IEEE

Faizi, N. R. Sabory, and A. H. Layan, “Impact of fuel consumption in the transportation sector on people, animals, and plant life in Kabul city,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 89–95, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11.


Springer

Faizi, S., Sabory, N.R., Layan, A.H.: Impact of fuel consumption in the transportation sector on people, animals, and plant life in Kabul city. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 89–95 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.11.

Authors

Shukria Faizi

Najib Rahman Sabory

Abdul Hamid Layan

References
  1. National Statistics and Information Authority (NSIA) - Afghanistan (2019) “Yearbook Afghanistan statistical 2018-19” (https://www.nsia.gov.af:8080/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Afghanistan-Statistical-Yearbook-2018-19_compressed.pdf) Accessed: 15 April 2020

     

  2. General Directorate of Traffic - Ministry of Interior Affairs MoI - Afghanistan (2019) “Kabul traffic statistics” (http://old.moi.gov.af/en/page/directorates/general-directorate-of-traffic)

     

  3. Fiebig M, Wiartalla A, Holderbaum B, Kiesow S (2014) “Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology (vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 6) https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6673-9-6

     

  4. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on vegetation (2019) Air Pollution (http://www.air-quality.org.uk/15.php) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  5. Natural Resources Canada (2017) “Energy and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs)” Natural Resources Canada (https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/science-data/data-analysis/energy-data-analysis/energy-facts/energy-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-ghgs/20063) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  6. Sugarcane biofuels: Status, potential, and prospects of the sweet crop to fuel the world (2019), 1st ed. Berlin, Germany, Springer. 472 p. ISBN: 978-3-030-18596-1

     

  7. Methane (2019) Gas Innovations (https://gasinnovations.com/products/methane/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access     Published  
Afghanistan renewable energy sector’s human resources estimation until 2032
Sadat SMW, and Sabory NR.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 96-101  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

Afghanistan with abundant sources of renewable energies has the plan to generate about 4,500 - 5,000 megawatts of its energy from renewable energies sources until 2032. However, it is still one of the energy importer countries. Human resources are one of the most fundamental and vital parts of a sector. Energy sector also needs enough human resources for its development and improvement. As a sector is developing, its requirement of human resources is increasing. Therefore, the number of its human resources must be increased too. Afghanistan, with a promoting renewable energy sector, has an essential need to have enough human resources for the energy sector. To ensure better future for country’s energy sector, it is necessary to estimate the needed human resources. In this research, we used the potential of renewable energy resources of Afghanistan to estimate the required human resources on construction, installation, operation, and maintenance of renewable energies power plants. Based on this research’s findings, the required number of human resources until 2032 in Afghanistan is estimated over 34,000 people which plays a significant role in job creation as well energy sector empowerment. We suggest that the government of Afghanistan hire the needed human resources through meritocracy to become self-sufficient in the energy industry and to be one of the energy exporter countries.

Citation

REPA 

Sadat SMW, Sabory NR (2020) “Afghanistan renewable energy sector’s human resources estimation until 2032” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 96–101) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12


APA 

Sadat, S. M. W., & Sabory, N. R. (2020). Afghanistan renewable energy sector’s human resources estimation until 2032. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 96–101. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12


MLA 

Sadat, Sayed Mohamad Waleed, and Najib Rahman Sabory. “Afghanistan Renewable Energy Sector’s Human Resources Estimation until 2032.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 96–101. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12.


Vancouver 

Sadat SMW, Sabory NR. Afghanistan renewable energy sector’s human resources estimation until 2032. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):96–101.


Chicago 

Sadat, Sayed Mohamad Waleed, and Najib Rahman Sabory. 2020. “Afghanistan Renewable Energy Sector’s Human Resources Estimation until 2032.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 96–101. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12.


Elsevier

Sadat SMW, Sabory NR. Afghanistan renewable energy sector’s human resources estimation until 2032. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:96–101. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12.


IEEE

M. W. Sadat and N. R. Sabory, “Afghanistan renewable energy sector’s human resources estimation until 2032,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 96–101, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12.


Springer

Sadat, S.M.W., Sabory, N.R.: Afghanistan renewable energy sector’s human resources estimation until 2032. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 96–101 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.12.

Authors
Sayed Mohamad Waleed Sadat
Najib Rahman Sabory
References
  1. Fichtner GmbH (2018) “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Power sector master plan” (https://www.adb. org/sites/default/files/project-document/76570/ 43497-012-afg-tacr.pdf) Accessed: 19 August 2019

     

  2. World Bank (2019) “Afghanistan” World Bank (https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/afghanistan) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  3. Ahmadzai S, McKinna A (2018) “Afghanistan electrical energy and trans-boundary water systems analyses: Challenges and opportunities” Energy Reports (vol. 4, pp. 435–469) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr. 2018.06.003

     

  4. Anwarzai MA (2018) “Research and analysis of Afghanistan’s wind, solar, and geothermal resources potential” (Doctoral Dissertation) Tokyo, Japan, Search Results Web results Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (https://tuat.repo.nii. ac.jp/?action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=1487&item_no=1&attribute_id=16&file_no=1) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  5. IT Power Consulting Private Limited (2017) “Renewable energy roadmap for Afghanistan RER2032” India, Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) - Afghanistan. (https://policy.asiapacificenergy.org/sites/default/files/RenewableEnergyRoadmapforAfghanistanRER2032.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  6. Maitra B (2016) “Investment in human capital and economic growth in Singapore” Global Business Review (vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 425–437) https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0972150915619819

     

  7. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) (2019) “Renewable power generation costs” Abu Dhabi, UAE, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). (https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/May/IRENA_Renewable-Power-Generations-Costs-in-2018.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  8. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) (2018) “Renewable Energy and Jobs: Annual Review 2018” Abu Dhabi, UAE, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). (https://irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/May/IRENA_RE_Jobs_Annual_Review_2018.pdf) Accessed: 4 July 2020

     

  9. Samadi AR (2011) “Energy consumption and available energy resources in Afghanistan” Kabul, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS). (https://www.usea.org/sites/default/files/event-file/522/Afghan_Power_Sector_Briefing_June_2011.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  10. UN Environment Programme (UNEP) (2008) “Greejobs: Towards decent work in a sustainable, low-carbon world” Washington DC., USA, UN Environment Programme (UNEP). (https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/ groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_ent/documents/publication/wcms_158727.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  11. U.S. Energy Informaiton Administration (2019) “Electric power annual 2018” Washington DC., USA, U.S. Energy Informaiton Administration. (https://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/pdf/epa.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  12. Confederation of Indian Industry (2010) “Human resource development strategies for Indian renewable energy sector” New Delhi, India.

     

  13. U.S. Department of Energy (2017) “U.S. energy and employment report” United States, United States Government, the U.S. Department of Energy. (https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/01/f34/2017USEnergyandJobsReport_0.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  14. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) (2011) “Electricity statistics” Kabul, Afghanistan, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS).

     

  15. Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) - Afghanistan (2018) “Afghanistan agrometeorological bulleting” (http://mew.gov.af/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access     Published  
An overview of sewage system management in Kabul
Karimi MH, Mohammadi MA, Amiri M, Nighat-Noori MM, and Sabory NR.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 102-109  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

This research is about management of the sewer and drainage system in Kabul city, which is predicted to continue growing in population. According to the new Master Plan, the city population will grow from 4.5 million in 2017 to 9 million by 2050.  Kabul’s rapid population growth has put pressure on its economy, social services, and housing, but the major urban systems such as roads, water supply, and sewage were poorly planned and implemented.  In this article, we will analyze the current problems of sewage in Kabul as it does not have a pre-established municipal sewage system. We compare Kabul’s management and control of wastewater to various cities around the world. We present our solution for the Master Plan with a literature review of similar cities in the world and a case study of Omid-e-Sabz, a town west of Kabul.

Citation

REPA 

Karimi MH, Mohammadi MA, Amiri M, Nighat-Noori MM, Sabory NR (2020) “An overview of sewage system management in Kabul” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 102–109) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13


APA

Karimi, M. H., Mohammadi, M. A., Amiri, M., Nighat-Noori, M. M., & Sabory, N. R. (2020). An overview of sewage system management in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 102–109. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13


MLA 

Karimi, Mohammad Hussain, et al. “An Overview of Sewage System Management in Kabul.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 102–09. doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13.


Vancouver 

Karimi MH, Mohammadi MA, Amiri M, Nighat-Noori MM, Sabory NR. An overview of sewage system management in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):102–9.


Chicago 

Karimi, Mohammad Hussain, Mohammad Amin Mohammadi, Muslim Amiri, Mohammad Mahdi Nighat-Noori, and Najib Rahman Sabory. 2020. “An Overview of Sewage System Management in Kabul.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 102–9. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13.


Elsevier

Karimi MH, Mohammadi MA, Amiri M, Nighat-Noori MM, Sabory NR. An overview of sewage system management in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:102–9. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13.


IEEE

H. Karimi, M. A. Mohammadi, M. Amiri, M. M. Nighat-Noori, and N. R. Sabory, “An overview of sewage system management in Kabul,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 102–109, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13.


Springer

Karimi, M.H., Mohammadi, M.A., Amiri, M., Nighat-Noori, M.M., Sabory, N.R.: An overview of sewage system management in Kabul. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 102–109 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.13.

Authors
Mohammad Hussain Karimi
Mohammad Amin Mohammadi
Muslim Amiri
Mohammad Mahdi Nighat- Noori
Najib Rahman Sabory
References
  1. Sasaki (2017) “Kabul urban design framework,” 1st ed. Kabul, Afghanistan, Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. (https://www.sasaki.com/projects/kabul-urban-design-framework/) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  2. Skyline Civil Group (2016) “The sewers of ancient Rome” Skyline Civil Group (http://www.skylinecivilgroup.com/sewers-ancient-rome/) Accessed: 9 March 2010

     

  3. Nicki jo Armfield (2019) “Sanitation in ancient Rome” Online Learning - Prezi (https://prezi.com/ o87e9rrkfqnr/sanitation-in-ancient-rome/) Accessed: 8 March 2020

     

  4. Dwarf Fortress Wiki (2019) “DF2014: Sewer” (https://dwarffortresswiki.org/index.php/DF2014:Sewer) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  5. Tata RP (2013) “Municipal sewer systems: Case studies” New York, USA, Continuing Education and Development, Inc. (https://www.cedengineering.com/user files/MunicipalSewerSystemsCaseStudies.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  6. Abellán J (2017) “Water supply and sanitation services in modern Europe: developments in 19th-20th centuries” 12th International Congress of the Spanish Association of Economic History Salamanca, Spain, Spanish Association for Energy Economics (AEEE) - pp. 1–17.

     

  7. De Feo G, Antoniou G, Fardin H, El-Gohary F, Zheng X, et al. (2014) “The historical development of sewers worldwide” Sustainability (vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 3936–3974) https://doi.org/10.3390/su6063936

     

  8. Baker M (2008) “Discovering London statues and monuments,” 5th ed. Princes Risborough, Shire. 128 p. ISBN: 978-0-7478-0495-6

     

  9. OpenLearn (2018) “How London got its Victorian sewers” Medium (https://medium.com/@OUFreeLearning/how-london-got-its-victorian-sewers-a60293f8dd60) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  10. London sewerage system (2020) Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=London_sewerage_system&oldid=948716404) Accessed: 10 April 2020

     

  11. United Nations (UN) (2019) “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)” (https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs) Accessed: 1 November 2019

Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.

Conference Proceeding (Special Issue)     Open Access     Published  
An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies
Hashimi SB, Zaheb H, and Sabory NR.
Repa Proceeding Series, 2020, 1 (1): 110-115  DOI 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14

Abstract
PDF
Citation
Authors
References
Acknowledgment
Abstract

After the industrial revolution and world technological growth, humanity and society seek to use energy resources more efficiently. The global economy currently relies on electricity for the economic and development of world nations. Electrical energy is used mostly in cities and commercial industries. This study focuses on changing the energy production and consumption patterns in Kabul as it is faced with many challenges and problems in providing needed electrical energy within its power network. For solving these problems and challenges, national policymakers are searching for practical and economical methods to provide electric energy for capital region in a sustainable manner. One suggestion is the storage of electrical energy, which can act when the network is under pressure and to avoid power outages. Electric Energy storage(EES)can be used as a secondary source to those regions which are not connected to the national power network. This research aims to find the most appropriate and practical solutions for the storage of extra and additional electrical energy at Kabul city.

Citation

REPA 

Hashimi SB, Zaheb H, Sabory NR (2020) “An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies” Repa Proceeding Series (vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 110–115) https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14


APA

Hashimi, S. B., Zaheb, H., & Sabory, N. R. (2020). An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies. Repa Proceeding Series, 1(1), 110–115. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14


MLA 

Hashimi, Sayed Belal, et al. “An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies.” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2020, pp. 110–15. Crossref, doi:10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14.


Vancouver 

Hashimi SB, Zaheb H, Sabory NR. An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies. Repa Proceeding Series. 2020 Jun 12;1(1):110–5.


Chicago 

Hashimi, Sayed Belal, Hameedullah Zaheb, and Najib Rahman Sabory. 2020. “An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies.” Repa Proceeding Series 1 (1): 110–15. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14.


Elsevier

Hashimi SB, Zaheb H, Sabory NR. An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies. Repa Proceeding Series 2020;1:110–5. https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14.


IEEE

B. Hashimi, H. Zaheb, and N. R. Sabory, “An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies,” Repa Proceeding Series, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 110–115, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14.


Springer

Hashimi, S.B., Zaheb, H., Sabory, N.R.: An overview of cost-effective energy storage technologies. Repa Proceeding Series. 1, 110–115 (2020). https://doi.org/10.37357/1068/SODC2019.1.1.14.

Authors
Sayed Belal Hashimi
Hameedullah Zaheb
Najib Rahman Sabory
References
  1. Inage S (2009) “Prospects for large-scale energy storage in decarbonized power grids” Working Paper Paris, France, International Energy Agency (IEA). (http://www.environmentportal.in/files/energy_storage.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

  2. Genta G (1985) “Kinetic energy storage: Theory and practice of advanced flywheel systems,” 1st ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands, Butterworths. 362 p. ISBN: 978-0-408-01396-3

     

  3. Hoffmann C, Greiner( M, Bremen LV, Knorr K, Bofinger S, et al. (2008) “Design of transport and storage capacities for a future European power supply system with a high share of renewable energies” IRES Conference Proceeding Berlin, Germany, uropean Association for Renewable Energy, vol. 3 - pp. 1–11.

     

  4. Shelke RS, Dighole DG (2016) “A review paper on dual mass flywheel system” International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 326–331)

     

  5. Östergård R (2011) “Flywheel energy storage: A conceptual study” (Thesis) Uppsala, Sweden, Uppsala University (https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:476114/FULLTEXT01.pdf) Accessed: 1 November 2019

     

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Acknowledgment

The author(s) has received no specific funding for this article/publication.